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2021考研翻译方法:减译法详解

发表时间:2021-04-21 16:29
减译法:由于英汉两种语言在语法结构、表达方式以及修辞手段上的不同,有些词语或句子成分在英语中是必不可少的,但若搬到译文中去,就会影响译文的简洁和通顺。因此在英译汉的过程中,为了使译文更加简练,更符合汉语的表达习惯,需要省略一些可有可无或翻译后反嫌累赘的词语。但必须注意,减译不是删掉原文中的某些内容,在不易减译的情况下,不要随便减。
1)省略代词。如:
We are pleased to have received your invitation to the symposium on internet.非常高兴收到你寄来的参加互联网会议的邀请。(省略代词“我们”)
If the chain reaction went on without being checked, it could cause a terrible explosion.如果连锁反应不加控制,就可能引起可怕的爆炸。(省略代词it, it在这里代表the chain reaction)
This will be particularly true since energy pinch will make it difficult to continue agriculture in the high-energy American fashion that makes it possible to combine few farmers with high yields.这种困境将是确定无疑的,因为能源的匮乏使农业无法以高能量消耗、投入少数农民就可能获得高产的美国耕种方式继续下去了。(原文中两处代词it均为形式宾语,)(示范)
It was stipulated that the goods should be delivered in three days.规定三天后发货。(it是形式主语,that是先行词)
2)省略冠词。如:
The volume of a gas increase more quickly than that of a liquid.气体体积增加的速度比液体快。
3)省略连词。如:
When the pressure gets low, the boiling-point becomes low.气压低,沸点就低。(连词when可以不译)
Henry had worked in a bank for years, and then he went to study in MIT.亨利在一家银行工作了几年,然后去麻省理工大学学习去了。
4)省略介词。如:
The distinction between light and pigment is important to color theory.区别光和色对于色彩理论来说很重要。(between可以不译) Over the years, tools and technology themselves as a source of fundamental innovation have largely been ignored by historian and philosophers of science.多年来,工具和技术本身作为根本性创新的源泉,在很大程度上被科学史学家和科学思想家忽视了。(示范)
Smoking is prohibited in public places.公共场所不准吸烟。
The supply of oil can be shut off unexpectedly at any time, and in any case, the oil wells will all run dry in thirty years or so at the present rate of use.石油供应可能随时被切断;不管怎样,以目前的这种消费速度,只需30年左右所有的油井都会枯竭。(示范)
5)省略名词。如: Perhaps you have overlooked the fact that your account for May purchases has not yet been settled.也许你忘记了五月份的购货款还没有结算。(fact后面引导的是一个同位语从句,可以不译)
6)省略动词。如:
There is no doubt that we’ll carry out the experiment successfully.毫无疑问我们一定能把实验搞成功。(there is不翻译)
He behaved politely while answering the interviewer’s questions.他在回答采访者的问题时,很有礼貌。(behave不翻译) Galileo’s greatest glory was that in 1609 he was the first person to turn the newly invented telescope on the heavens to prove that the planets revolve around the sun rather than around the Earth.伽里略最光辉的业绩在于他在1609年**个把新发明的望远镜对准天空,以证实行星是围绕太阳旋转,而不是围绕地球旋转。